With the development of technology, and in order to adapt to the welding of some specific precision parts or to facilitate field work, the welding equipment has been developing towards miniaturization and miniaturization。
Sponsored by German welding society, Essen welding and cutting exhibition is one of the largest welding and cutting exhibitions in the world. The exhibition contents represent the most advanced welding materials, technology and automation equipment in the field of welding and cutting in the world. The content of this exhibition is characterized by the rapid development of welding automation. From ordinary gas shielded welding to advanced friction stir welding, it can be completely operated by robots instead of traditional manual operation. The flexible mechanical arm and precise CNC platform have greatly improved the welding efficiency and quality. The welding precision is guaranteed by the automatic tracking technology of welding seam, and the welding efficiency and quality are improved by the on-line testing technology of welding seam. Compared with the traditional thermal cutting technology, water knife cutting will not produce smoke and dust and harmful gas, and completely achieve green environmental protection. Germany's miniature vacuum electron beam welding equipment is more sophisticated, the vacuum chamber is only the size of a human head.
1. High digitalization and automation of welding and cutting equipment
The welding exhibition read one of the biggest is the digital welding equipment, high automatic degree, in addition to the welding rod arc welding, argon arc welding equipment, welding equipment adopts the most NC numerical control system and human-machine interface, the operator can be set freely according to different welding parts through the man-machine interface welding parameters and welding procedure, welding procedure and stored in the NC control system, can store up to hundreds of welding procedure, has realized the intellectualized welding, at the same time, combined with a robot or manipulator system, achieve efficient automation welding or cutting. Not only reduces the labor intensity, greatly improves the efficiency, at the same time may obtain the stable, the reliable high quality weld, moreover the welding craft repeatability, the reproduction is good, the welding quality uniformity is good.
Major manufacturers have tried their best to attract the attention of visitors. ABB, for example, USES two robots to "work" together, with each robot's end arm "holding" a screen the size of a home TV, and then combining to form a picture. FANUC's demonstration of two robots working together to "weld" basketball strings. As we all know, there are many ball lines on the surface of basketball. The trend of these ball lines well represents the shapes of various complicated welding seams at present, such as saddle-shaped and intersecting lines. These welds are difficult to implement with just one welding robot, but easy to implement with two robots working together. FANUC does a good job of addressing these issues, and from the content on display at the company, it's pretty neat.
The collaborative movement of robots is one of the highlights of this Essen exhibition. A traditional welding robot is equipped with a turntable, with only 8 degrees of freedom. Although it can weld complex welds of some workpieces with complex shapes, with the development of small batch and diversification of products, a robot equipped with a turntable can no longer meet the requirements. The cooperative movement of two robots can generate a total of 12 degrees of freedom, which greatly increases its "flexibility" and makes it fully competent for all kinds of complex welds, as shown in figure 1. These technologies, such as in the weapon industry, vehicle body, turret and other large structural parts of the welding on the promotion and application, can not only achieve high-speed and efficient welding, but also reduce the manufacturing cost, greatly shorten the manufacturing cycle.
2. Power upsizing and equipment miniaturization of welding equipment
In order to meet the welding production demand of some parts with large thickness, a variety of high-power welding equipment emerged at the right moment, especially high-energy beam welding equipment, such as laser and electron beam welding equipment. Along with the breakthrough of the key technical bottleneck in the equipment manufacturing, some high-power or super-power welding equipment has been produced. At present, the power of high-power laser can reach more than 10kW, which can be used for welding of combination gear and thick plate. British CVE high-power electron beam welding machine, the power can reach more than 100kW, can weld through 380mm thick stainless steel plate, but also can be applied to the manufacturing technology of electron beam free forming and surface precision forming, for the application of high-energy beam processing technology in the manufacturing industry provides a broader prospect.
With the development of technology, and in order to adapt to the welding of some specific precision parts or facilitate field work, the welding equipment has been developing towards miniaturization and miniaturization, as shown in figure 2. Another major feature of this exhibition is that the welding machine has been displayed by the traditional "silly, big, stupid, thick" tend to miniaturization and facilitation. Welding and cutting equipment small size, light weight, portable, can completely meet the needs of different environments, different occasions of welding. Typical small welding equipment includes the miniature electron beam welding equipment produced by German FOCUS, with the power of 2kW and the vacuum chamber size of 200mm2. The whole welding system is only about the size of a desk, which can meet the welding requirements of various small size precision parts. Shanghai hugong series mini inverter arc welding machine, the minimum size is only 185mm * 75mm * 140mm, the weight is only 1.8kg, easy to carry, greatly meet the requirements of field work. This is of great significance for the repair of large weapon equipment in service.